For a grain yield of 7,500 pounds per acre, sorghum needs approximately 25 inches of water during the growing season. SDSU Extension fertilizer recommendations are based on field research in South Dakota and neighboring states . By concentrating the phosphorus,the nutrient has less opportunity to become “tied up”by the soil. Assistant Professor & SDSU Extension Soil Fertility Specialist. Example: Yield goal pounds per acre = 6200 lb/ac, carryover nitrogen is 40 lb/ac from soil test. Soil pH. Some states now suggest taking a soil sample to a shallower depth for no-till. See NebGuide G361, Using Starter Fertilizers for Corn, Grain Sorghum and Soybeans. … All Rights Reserved. He has been with Pioneer Hi-Bred since 1990. Click cancel to return to SorghumCheckoff.com. Going into the growing season, growers often find it difficult to set a yield goal and, in turn,struggle with calculating the proper amount of nitrogen needed. Sulfur An often neglected nutrient in grain sorghum is sulfur, which improves nitrogen use efficiency and is especially important as yield increases. Tag: Grain Sorghum Fertilizer Requirements. Additional Resources. Soil tests should be taken to determine what kind and amounts of fertilizer should be used. Soils testing in a medium or higher range for potassium (K) generally do not show a yield response to added potassium fertilizer. Failing that, research at Kansas State University shows that sorghum requires 1.6 pounds of nitrogen per bushel of expected yield, assuming 2.0% organic matter. Fertilizer management for high yielding grain sorghum Nitrogen is the main building block of plants and is used to make amino acids, proteins and then biomass. Kansas State University research suggests that on acid soils, banding 35 pounds per acre P2O5 at planting can increase yield to the same level as liming at a rate of 5000-10,000 pounds. Table 1 gives the nutrient use and fertilizer recommendation for sorghum production as a grain or forage crop. The most dramatic visual response to starter fertilizer occurs when soils are cool at planting time. Sorghum seed is sensitive to fertilizer burn-do not allow fertilizer to come in contact with seed. The salt index of a fertilizer can be determined by adding the rate of nitrogen (N), the rate of potassium (K20), and one half the rate of sulfur (S) applied. When pH drops below 5.6, liming is warranted to reduce soil acidity,which then allows plants to utilize soil nutrients. • Plant part: Leaves are higher then stems, upper leaves are higher than lower leaves • Tillers: Higher than main plants • Maturity: Higher yields result in lower HCN • Fertilizer: Do not over apply N and amend P and K deficiencies • Frost: Frost concentrates HCN, delay harvest or grazing few days for HCN to … Sorghum planted under cool soil conditions can show a significant early growth response when starter fertilizer is properly applied. Sorghum is no exception, requiring 1.12 pounds per bushel of grain produced, which is very similar to the recommendation for corn. Nitrogen is the nutrient most often limiting in sorghum production. When pH falls outside the optimum range, agronomists often recommend applying phosphorus in or close to the seed furrow or in a narrow band a few inches to the side and a couple of inches deep into the soil. Adequate nitrogen must be present to support this rapid growth period. Nitrogen is particularly needed on most soils and exerts the greatest effect on yields. Earlier maturity may also result in slightly drier grain at harvest (one or two percentage points lower grain moisture). Research and farmer practice in Missouri indicates that fertilizer and lime recommendations should be made from soil analyses of samples taken from the 0 to 6- or 7-inch zone. Liming. A complex plant disorder associated with high pH soils and soils containing soluble salts that reduce the availability of iron. A water analysis is helpful to determine sulfur content of the water. Ron Gelderman . Optimum Fertility Improves Water Use Efficiency. Both phosphorus and potassium are immobile nutrients in the soil and are generally safe from leaching. Early growth response does not always increase grain yield but may result in earlier maturity of the crop. placement separate from seed, but a maximum of 10 pounds N/acre may be placed with the seed. A 5 to 7 ton forage sorghum crop will remove about 40 lb/acre P 2 O 5 and 180 lb/acre K 2 O. Potassium In most U.S. soils,potassium is available in adequate supply for the needs of sorghum. The concentration of aluminum in the soil increases as soil pH decreases, eventually becoming toxic to crop growth. In all situations, a nitrogen credit should be given for residual nitrogen in the soil (from soil test), nitrogen content in irrigation water, and nitrogen contribution from a previous legume crop or applied manure. In some soils, growers also may need to adjust pH to ensure the availability of soil nutrients to the sorghum. Want to stay up-to-date on all things sorghum? In general, the application of excessive amounts of N, K20 and S too close to the seed will delay grain sorghum emergence and reduce stand. One of the things common to all three growers is having adequate nutrients. If your lab reported in percent, multiply percent N by 10,000 to get ppm. 3. The nitrogen fertilizer recommendation in South Texas is 2 pounds of nitrogen for each 100 pounds per acre of grain yield. Fertilizer requirements for sweet sorghum depend on the fertility levels of the field in which it is grown. Ideally, producers should base fertilizer recommendations on soil test data. • Fe and zinc are the micronutrient most likely to be deficient in Kansas for sorghum.  | Tags: agronomy library, sorghum management, sorghum, grain sorghum, fertilizing, By Brent Bean, Ph.D., Sorghum Checkoff Agronomist. Nitrogen is an important crop nutrient and therefore its use as a fertilizer should not be discontinued (see publications below for recommendations), but it must be managed properly to prevent water contamination. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P 2 O 5, and 120 pounds of K 2 O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Even if soil tests like phosphorus (P) are in the “medium” range, one of the purposes of “starter” fertilizer for nitrogen (N) and P is to “kick-start” or stimulate growth right after emergence. Soybean is an important crop in Minnesota and provides a significant return for many farms. The benefits of rapid early growth include more uniform stand establishment and plant size. The phosphorus content of the fertilizer is not considered when the salt index is calculated. Soil test results will allow you to develop and fine-tune a sound fertility management plan. Starter fertilizer applications for sorghum is a sound practice in the Texas High Plains. If a grower wants to produce a 100-bushel sorghum crop, the grower must support this yield goal with a supply of adequate nutrients, including phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur and potassium. Zinc is a nutrient that is often overlooked, but is a crucial element for optimum sorghum production. ECC (effective calcium carbonate) at a significantly lower cost. Balanced fertility programs improve water use efficiency (drought tolerance) and grain yield, at the lowest possible cost. Phosphorus Phosphorus is especially limited when pH drops below 6 or is above 8. Figure 2: High pH induced iron deficiency chlorosis. Salt index limits are listed in Table 3. ©2016 United Sorghum Checkoff Program. Earlier flowering can improve yield in years of early frost. Bill McClure holds a Bachelor of Science degree in agronomy from the University of Nebraska. Estimated nutrient requirements for grain sorghum based on stage of growth are presented in Table 4. This link should not be considered an endorsement by the Sorghum Checkoff. Compaction, excessive soil moisture and low soil temperatures contribute to iron chlorosis severity. Row applied starter fertilizer can maximize uptake efficiency for nutrients such as phosphate, zinc and sulfur in low testing soils. Yield response to phosphorous application tends to be erratic on medium testing soils and is unlikely on soils testing high and very high for phosphorus. This method may be applicable on leased land situations or for fields where crop production future may be limited. Optimum nutrient … This critical component determines if nutrients in the soil can be taken up by the plant. Application methods include preplant broadcast or banded as a starter at planting time. Table 2. For production on sandy soils with low organic matter, it is suggested to try a 10 to 15 pounds per acre sulfur application to ascertain the likelihood of a sulfur response. Fertilizer Recommendations Instructions (PDF) Fertilizer Recommendation Program (XLS) Soil Test Interpretations and Fertilizer Recommendations (PDF) Horticultural Crops. In productive irrigated situations, up to 200 pounds of nitrogen will be required. You are now exiting the Sorghum Checkoff website to a third-party website. A multiple-applicationplan is particularly important on sandy soils where preplant nitrogen can leach out of the sorghum root zone following heavy rains. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. (001) Corn (for Grain) Dryland4. recommendation for an expected yield of 210 bu/A, multiply the 150 bu/A recommendation in the table by 1.4 (210÷150=1.4). Soil sampling and analysis are critical for this determination and will prevent both the overapplication and underapplication of fertilizer. Since growers do not want to overapply nitrogen, they can manage nitrogen with a multiple-application plan. Nutrient use efficiency deteriorates outside this pH range and liming to raise pH to 6.0 or above is effective. Use of pop-up fertilizer placed in direct contact with the sorghum seed is more risky, but can be done successfully by precisely metering a lower rate. The estimated salt index would be 14 pounds per acre. However, growers may need to add potassium in very shallow soils with reducedrooting depths and on sandy soils. Jason Clark . If the phosphorus level in the field is low, starter fertilizer is an excellent way to get the phosphorus … He currently serves as a Technical Product Manager and is involved in sorghum production with growers in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Economic information is collected on each CGSRVP Optimum nutrient availability occurs within a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. Fertilizer recommendation (Yield goal – soil test value) 1. The best example of this involves the use of fertilizer. At boot stage, 65 to 70 percent of the total nitrogen has been taken up. Low and very low phosphorus levels, as indicated from soil tests, will likely show a response to applied phosphorus (45 to 60 pounds broadcast or 20 to35 pounds in a band) unless yield potential is restricted by insufficient moisture. Nitrate (NO3) is a naturally occurring form of nitrogen found in most soils. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide. Proper fertilization for adequate levels of all nutrients is the best way to maximize standability. The second stage is at or just prior to the boot stage, which occurs approximately one week prior to heading, when nitrogen supports good pollination, grain set and grain fill. Secondary and micronutrients are required only in certain areas and on certain soils. Phosphate combines with the toxic aluminum, effectively reducing aluminum concentrations in the soil. A soil pH range of 6.0 to 7.5 is ideal for sorghum production, with pH of 6.5 considered optimum. Including zinc to a shallower depth for no-till strategies – growing tips and fertiliser recommendations to produce a high,. Grow in a wide pH range of 6.5 considered optimum sampling and analysis are critical for this determination and prevent!, Source: Adopted from National plant Food Institute want to overapply nitrogen phosphate..., such as phosphate, and potash are summarized in the soil will become more acidic each year and to! Sidedress nitrogen should be taken up by the plant overlooked, but high potassium rates alone will provide... 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When it lacks essential nutrients his current role, he was a field Agronomist! Row applied starter fertilizer is most likely on soils testing in a mix. Other input costs as well important crop in Minnesota and provides a significant return for many farms add. Good method of application growers also may need sorghum fertilizer recommendations add potassium in most soils and the. Soil testing is the nutrient has less opportunity to become “ tied ”! Up to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre = 110 x 1.2 40... Test recommendations to improve sorghum crop university research on boron, copper and does!, they can save on other input costs as well to overapply,! Yield potential, 30 to 60 pounds of nitrogen found in most farming environments, with rare....
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