The State of Bengal was ruled by Ethiopians for three years before being defeated and two Princely State’s, Janjira and Sachin in Western India controlled hundreds of miles of coastline for centuries. The Asif Jahi rulers patronised them with rewards and the traditional Marfa music gained popularity and would be performed during official celebrations and ceremonies. [52] Only around 12% carried Africa-derived clades, which mainly consisted of the archaic haplogroup B-M60, of which they bore the highest frequency of any Pakistani population Underhill et al. Owing to the castle's fortifications, the Admiral could not attack conventionally. Similarly, another term for Siddis, habshi (from Al-Habsh, the Arabic term for Abyssinia), is held to be derived from the common na… Siddis were also brought as slaves by the Deccan Sultanates. As was the practice of many Islamic dynasties, the Siddis of Janjira also built their own tombs, with Siddi Surul Khan, the Wazir of Janjira State from 1707 – 1732, the most prominent. Siddis first came to Janjira as traders in the fifteenth century, and from 1621 until the merger of all princely states into the Indian Union in March 1948, Janjira was ruled by a Siddi family dynasty. They came to be known by the name of Siddis or Habshis (Ethiopians or Abyssinians). But Siddis in Karnataka are primarily Catholics, possibly influenced by their Portuguese and Goan masters. They are calling it India’s ‘Lost Civilization’... but is it really? Many members of the Siddis community of Karnataka had migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh. R1a1a-M17 (30.30%), J2 (18.18%) and R2 (18.18%) were their most common male lineages. The remainder is associated with locals North and Northwest Indian populations, due to recent admixture events. The place is full of coconut and betel nut trees and has a nice and prosperous seashore. Murud is not a big village but it is famous for the Island Fort of Murud-Janjira. On 19 April 1736, Maratha warrior Chimaji Appa attacked the gathering forces in the encampments of the Siddis near Rewas. Many attempts were made the British, Portuguese, Dutch and the Marathas to conquer the fort but all of them failed to capture this fort. Famous Sheedis include the historic Sindhi army leader Hoshu Sheedi[41] and Urdu poet Noon Meem Danish. Created with Sketch. Abstract and Figures Murud Janjira is a good example of water body fort located near the south Konkan coastline. After it was captured by Malik Amber of the Siddi Dynasty, the fort was strengthened and stands still even today. Qasim Umer is one cricketer who played for Pakistan in 80s. In the Delhi Sultanate period prior to the rise of the Mughals in India, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut was a prominent Siddi slave-turned-nobleman who was a close confidant of Razia Sultana (1235–1240 CE). [9] A second theory is that the term Siddi is derived from the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi settlers to India; these captains were known as Sayyid. There are conflicting hypotheses on the origin of the name Siddi. Murud-Janjira is the local name for a fort situated at the coastal village of Murud, in the Raigad district of Maharashtra, India. (2011) observed that Siddis in Gujarat derive 66.90%–70.50% of their ancestry from Bantu forebears, while the Siddis in Karnataka possess 64.80%–74.40% such Southeast African ancestry. [5][47] Tanzeela Qambrani became the first Sheedi woman to be elected as the member of Provincial Assembly of Sindh in 2018 Pakistani general election.[48][49]. [34], The Siddis of Karnataka (also spelled Siddhis) are an ethnic group of mainly Bantu descent that has made Karnataka their home for the last 400 years. According to one legend, in the year 1489 the Ahmadnagar Sultanate sent its Admiral Piram Khan (of Ethiopian descent) with orders to capture the Murud-Janjira castle from Ram Patil. [31] The term is believed to be derived from the Ngoma drumming and traditional dance forms of the Bantu people inhabiting Central, East and Southern Africa. The Murud – Janjira Fort is the prime highlight of this tourist hotspot. In the year 1736, Siddis of Murud-Janjira set out in a battle with the forces of Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao. For other ethnic groups and people of both African and Indian origin or people of Indian descent in Africa, see. This silver Ankushi rupee was struck in the name of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II minted under the dominions of the Siddis of Janjira. The Sheedis are divided into four clans, or houses: Kharadar Makan, Hyderabad Makan, Lassi Makan and Belaro Makan. The majority of the Siddis in Gujarat are Muslims (98.7%), with very few following Hinduism (1%). They were brought 300 years ago from Portuguese colonial territories for the Nawab of Junagadh. One theory is that the word derives from sahibi, a Arabic term of respect in North Africa, similar to the word sahib in modern India and Pakistan. In Sindh, the Sheedis have traditionally intermarried only with people such as the Mallahs (fisherpeople), Khaskheli (laborers), Khatri (dyeing community) and Kori (clothmakers). The Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira but failed. Each day, Live History India brings you stories and films that not only chronicle India’s history and heritage for you, but also help create a digital archive of the 'Stories that make India' for future generations. But, an example of a staple meal would be a large portions of rice with dal and pickles. The remaining Siddis had Indian associated or Near Eastern-linked clades, including haplogroups P, H, R1a-M17, J2 and L-M20. These include the Goma music and dance form, which is sometimes called Dhamaal (Gujarati: ધમાલ, fun). When the confrontation ended, 1,500 Siddis, including their … The first Siddis are thought to have arrived in India in 628 AD at the Bharuch port. July 30th 2020 follow. [5] There is a 50,000-strong Siddhi population across India, of which more than a third live in Karnataka. An architectural beauty in the Arabian sea, off the coast of Murud, the fort is about 50 feet high. The best thing about this fort is that it is surrounded by water on all sides and that is why is also referred to as Island Fort. Supposedly presented as slaves by the Portuguese to the local Prince, Nawab of Junagadh, the Siddis also live around Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife sanctuary. Some were merchants, sailors, indentured servants, slaves and mercenaries. The fort of Murud Janjira stands testimony to tell tales of the small yet powerful citadel of the Siddis. You can site this fort in a small town named Murud. [6] The estimated population of Sheedis in Pakistan is 250,000. Since then Murud Janjira Fort became the stronghold of Siddis. [53], According to an mtDNA study by Shah et al. [60] Outside of their communities, men also tend to be employed as farm hands, drivers, manual laborers, and security guards.[61]. According to the researchers, about 58% of the Siddis' ancestry is derived from Bantu peoples. Janjira Fort, Maharashtra. The Nawab of Sachin and Janjira. Ratnagiri Petroglyphs: A Window into the Past. 1. The word Janjira is a corruption of the Arabic word “Jazeera”, which means an island. Murud is a Marathi word for the Siddis, an ethnic group originating from Abyssinia, a historical nation in modern day Ethiopia. Murud-Janjira Fort is situated on an oval-shaped rock off the Arabian Sea coast near the port town of Murud, 165 km (103 mi) south of Mumbai. The Janjira Fort was initially made up of small wooden structure in the 15th Century. According to the authors, the genome-wide ancestry of the Makrani was essentially the same as that of the neighboring Indo-European speaking Balochi and Dravidian-speaking Brahui.[55]. [54], Similarly, Shah et al. [22] Hamilton (1990) argues that Siddis in South India are a significant social group whose histories, experiences, cultures, and expressions are integral to the African Diaspora and thus, help better understand the dynamics of dispersed peoples. How did a young boy sold as a slave in Ethiopia rise and become so powerful in India? Two Siddi soldiers wielding swords with a ship in the background became the sigil of Siddis of Janjira. The first Siddis are thought to have arrived in India in 628 AD at the Bharuch port. [5], However, Guha et al. More recent focused scholarship argues that although Siddis are numerically a minority, their historic presence in India for over five hundred years, as well as their self-perception, and how the broader Indian society relates to them, make them a distinct Bantu/Indian. [50], Thangaraj (2009) observed similar, mainly Bantu-linked paternal affinities amongst the Siddi. [63][64][65], African ethnic group in India and Pakistan, This article is about the South Asian ethnic group. [35], A plurality of the Siddis in Karnataka follow Hinduism (41.8%), followed by Islam (30.6%) and Christianity (27.4%). Fortified to the teeth, the structure could never be conquered by the Marathas, the Portuguese, or the British; in spite of their numerous attempts. [10] Siddis are also sometimes referred to as Afro-Indians. Janjira is especially considered one of the best specimens of naval fort architecture. The authors observed the E1b1a1-M2 haplogroup, which is frequent among Bantu peoples, in about 42% and 34% of Siddis from Karnataka and Gujarat, respectively. name="dawn.com">Paracha, Nadeem (26 August 2018), Arab Islamic conquest of the subcontinent, "Smokers’ corner: Sindh's African roots ", "A-11 Individual Scheduled Tribe Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix", Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture", "Another face of Hyderabad - Times of India", "Black Sufis: Preserving the Siddi's and its age old culture in India", http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/SCST-Series/ST14/ST-24-00-014-DDW-2011.XLS, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/SCST-Series/ST14/ST-29-00-014-DDW-2011.XLS, "Manghopir urs a living tribute to Sheedi culture", "Sheedi basha hum basha: black people dance away sorrows", "Sheedis have been hurt most by attitudes", Tanzeela Qambrani: First Sheedi woman to become member of Sindh Assembly, Tanzeela to be first Sheedi woman to enter Sindh Assembly, "Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan", "Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a", "Recent Admixture in an Indian Population of African Ancestry", "Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population", http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20160801-indias-forgotten-jungle-dwellers, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/04/siddi-people-africa-india-tribe-culture/, https://www.thebetterindia.com/93626/india-racism-siddi-african/, https://qz.com/india/440978/meet-the-fast-disappearing-community-of-indians-and-pakistanis-of-african-origin/amp/, "Racing for a better future: The African-origin tribe in K'taka that's turning to sports", "How These African-Indians Can Bring Gold Medals For The Country In Next Olympics", "Bengaluru Man Helps Karnataka's Siddi Tribe Smash Stigma with Sports! [5], Narang et al. "[45], Sheedis are largely populated in different towns and villages in lower Sindh. 00:00. The word "morod" is peculiar to Konkani and is absent in Marathi. [26][27][28] Janjira is considered one of the strongest marine forts in India. Janjira Fort or the Janjira Jal-durg is one of the most impressive structures located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. [30], Although Gujarati Siddis have adopted the language and many customs of their surrounding populations, some of their Bantu traditions have been preserved. Well-conceived and well-defended, it was never conquered, though attacked dozens of … Several others followed with the first Arab Islamic conquest of the subcontinent in 712 AD. Around 14% of Siddis from Karnataka and 35% of Siddis from Gujarat also belonged to the Sub-Saharan B-M60. The Siddi (pronounced [sɪd̪d̪i]), also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan. Siddis are Sunni Muslims who are from Said tribe and hence they are known as Siddis. (2011) examined the autosomal DNA of Siddis in India. [32] The Goma also has a spiritual significance and, at the climax of the dance, some dancers are believed to be vehicles for the presence of Siddi saints of the past.[33]. [39] Clearly, the instrument, songs and dance appear to be derived from Africa.[40]. It was ruled by Abyssinian Muslims called – SIDDI. Some Siddis also came as merchants but most of them worked as slaves and since then remained in India as part of the African diaspora. [7] Siddis are primarily Muslims, although some are Hindus and others belong to the Catholic Church. (2002) analysed Makrani Siddis in Pakistan and found that they instead predominantly carried Indian-associated or Near Eastern-linked haplogroups. Located 50 k.m. The Siddis are a community of African-origin Indian people living predominantly in India’s states of Karnataka and Gujarat. The African Siddis of Janjira LHI Team. 00:00. [11][12][13] Siddis were referred to as Zanji by Arabs; in China, various transcriptions of this Arabic word were used, including Xinji (辛吉) and Jinzhi (津芝).[14][15][16][17]. The Siddis of Hyderabad have traditionally resided in the A.C. Murud is the nearest town to the fort which is located at about 165 kms from Mumbai. Bassein: The Forgotten City. Malik Ambar recruited many Siddis in the 16th century, but historical references of their presence in India can be found from the 15th century. In Karnataka, they are concentrated around Yellapur, Haliyal, Ankola, Joida, Mundgod and Sirsi taluks of Uttara Kannada and in Khanapur of Belgaum and Kalaghatagi of Dharwad district. Is it far into the sea? Malik Ambar - The Deccan’s African Defender | Tales & Trails 00:00. Sir Sidi Ahmed Khan Palace While entering Murud you come across the Palace of Nawab on the left hand side of the road. A former alternative name of Janjira was Habshan (i.e., land of the Habshis). The Siddis were brought to India almost 500 years ago as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants. [38] The Sufi saint Pir Mangho is regarded by many as the patron saint of the Sheedis, and the annual Sheedi Mela festival, is the key event in the Sheedi community's cultural calendar. Malik Ambar (pictured) is the most prominent example of a Siddi in India. Even though the Portuguese and the British tried their best to capture the Janjira Fort, they were unable to defeat the Siddis. ", "Habshis and Siddis – Africans and African descendants in South Asia", The Global African Community/Great Habshis in Ethiopian/Indian History, "South Asia's Africans: A Forgotten People", BBC "In pictures: India's African communities", https://web.archive.org/web/20070115035750/http://travel.expressindia.com/story/20499.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Siddi&oldid=994214081, Articles with dead external links from March 2011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sidi Sayyid, credited with the building of the, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 17:06. The term ‘Siddi’ is derived from North Africa, where it was used as a term of respect. Janjira, the marine fort, built by the Abyssinian Siddis, who had established a kingdom this side of the coast, was teasing my thoughts. Members are descended from the Bantu peoples of Southeast Africa. [5] The Siddi population is currently estimated at around 270,000–350,000 individuals, with Karnataka, Gujarat and Hyderabad in India and Makran and Karachi in Pakistan[6] as the main population centres. A B S T R A C T Janjira - The Undefeated Fort Janjira Fort is situated on the Murud beach in the Arabian sea along the Konkan coast line. A second theory is that the term Siddi is derived from the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi settlers to India. Janjira Fort is a few hours' journey from Mumbai's Gateway of India pier. [58] It is rare for the Siddi to marry outside of their communities although in Pakistan a growing number of the Sheedi (as they are known there) intermarry as a way to dilute their African lineage and reduce racial discrimination and prejudice. A former alternative name of Janjira was Habshan (i.e., land of the Habshis). Murud is a village in Raigad district, south to Alibagh in the state of Maharashtra. [51], Qamar et al. While they have assimilated in many ways to the dominant culture,[56] they have also kept some ancestral practices especially in music and dance. When the confrontation ended, 1,500 Siddis, including their leader Siddi Sat, were killed. (2012) observed few genetic differences between the Makrani of Pakistan and adjacent populations. Some Siddis escaped slavery to establish communities in forested areas, and some also established the small Siddi principalities of Janjira State on Janjira Island and Jafarabad State in Kathiawar as early as the twelfth century. In the year 1736, Siddis of Murud-Janjira set out in a battle with the forces of Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao. [10], Similarly, another term for Siddis, habshi, is held to be derived from the common name for the captains of the Northeast African Abyssinian ships that also first delivered Siddi slaves to the subcontinent. [36], In Pakistan, locals of Bantu descent are called "Sheedi". [24] The Siddi are recognized as a scheduled tribe in 3 states and 1 union territory: Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka and Daman and Diu.[25]. Do I approach it by boat? Men wear what is generally appropriate for men in their communities. You need to drive on the They did not simply succumb to the ideologies and structures of imperial forces, nor did they simply rebel against imperial rule. Another time, I was taken by the legend of Murud-Janjira, a … [23] Historically, Siddis have not existed only within binary relations to the nation state and imperial forces. In the local culture, when there is a dance it is not performed by some selected few and watched idly by others but it is participated by all the people present there, ending difference between the performers and the audience. Originally known as the Janjira Fort, it is one of the strongest marine forts of India. 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