“The orange is life, or light,” she explains, pointing at the glowing horizon line on her quilt, The Johnson House. Railroad workers One way that they can do this is by using pictures or symbols. Regardless of the disputed history, it has been twenty years now that Tindall and other quilters have been making coded quilts: glimmering, spiritually charged, stop-you-in-your-tracks, hanging textiles based in deeply believed and debated historical events. Such is the case with Kaluli people of Papua New Guinea, who believe the spirits of their dead take up in particular animals, namely pigs and birds. Today, we do this mainly by writing and talking. Support the Folklife Festival, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, sustainability projects, educational outreach, and more. Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on July 13, 2018: There were many such signs and meanings behind these quilts which were used to point escaping slaves in the right direction towards safety. It was an ingenious way to impart meanings important to this effort. Beautiful example of a Wagon Wheel pattern quilt. Underground Railroad Quilt Block Meanings People have long believed that the symbols used in quilts of the South during slavery were actually used as secret messages for slaves escaping on the Underground Railroad. North was the direction of traffic on the Underground Railroad. I really enjoyed the article and the historical information. Craft and empowerment -The Underground Railroad Quilts. Safe houses, hopefully no farther than 10-11 miles apart, were called Resembling a log cabin, these blocks are created with layer rectangles. According to advocates of the quilt theory, ten quilt patterns were used to direct enslaved people to take particular actions. The Rose Wreath quilt square sadly was informing the slaves that someone had died on the journey. Drunkard’s Path = Zig-zag as you go along in case you are being stalked by hounds, Double Wedding Ring =Now it is safe to remove your chains and shackles. This pattern has been called many. “Of course there is no documentation! I am fascinated by the symbols and how they displayed them It was a labor of love. Susan Hazelton (author) from Sunny Florida on November 27, 2018: SweetiePie I like them all in varying degrees. The Underground Railroad Quilt Codes* Secret messages in the form of quilt patterns helped enslaved people escape the bonds of captivity in the Southern states before and during the American Civil War. The slaves, the Johnson family who protected them, that presence was the colors in the sky of the quilt. It has been disputed by a number of historians. Tindall uses combinations of cottons, raw Dupioni silks, Swarovski crystals, natural fibers, Malian mud cloth, and even glitter to convey the spiritual, intangible components of her narrative compositions. Our list Quilt Block Names and Meanings: The Ultimate Guides includes names, photos, descriptions, and even a little history for the most popular quilt blocks out there. The Sailboat quilt block tells the slaves to take a sailboat across the Great Lakes to safety. And thank you for this interesting story about quilting...my sister is an avid quilter so will email this to her. Pamela Oglesby from Sunny Florida on July 18, 2019: This is a fascinating article about the underground railroad. “Flying geese are blue; the sky is blue, red and black,” she responded. This secret path was neither underground nor a railroad. During the time of the underground railroad, safehouses had to be made so slaves can have a place to stay and get information to know when the "railroad" would come. “One woman who was originally from South Carolina but lived in Detroit said she learned quilting as a child in South Carolina. The most famous telling of a quilt code says that indeed, quilts were a vital part of the Underground Railroad, and their history with it was unwritten until very recently. Angels are on the way ps pinned, The Underground Railroad: Many Paths to Freedom, The Underground Railroad: A Code of Secrecy, Part II, The Underground Railroad - A Road to Freedom. I had a great time researching this. This is a double monkey wrench quilt square pattern. the underground railroad quilts squares where made with codes to help the slaves to freedom These quilts were embedded with a kind of code, so that by reading the shapes and motifs sewn into the design, an enslaved person on the run could know the area’s immediate dangers or even where to head next. Come and learn the meaning of the blocks said to have lent the slaves a … One way that they can do this is by using pictures or symbols. After all this time, they have been lost or have fallen to pieces. Underground Railroad Quilt Block Meanings. Some are political, patriotic or have historical significance. Perhaps the code, true or not, is a vehicle for African Americans to explore the trauma they inherited—and the hope. Often made from scraps of old dresses, burlap sacks, and dish cloths, it gives physical, even functional, form to a family or individual’s past and present. How the Quilt Code of the Underground Railroad enabled the slaves to run away from slavery safely. The Online Quilt Block Pattern Library. Two historians say African American slaves may have used a quilt code to navigate the Underground Railroad. to segregation laws and seeking industry jobs during what is known as the Great Northern Migration, or the Black Migration. Underground Railroad was and how African slaves, known as fugitives, “rode” it to freedom. In many cases it indicated that this was a safe house. In recent years, one of the most powerful quilt myths to emerge has centered on the role quilts may have played in the Underground Railroad. My family's roots have been in Massachusetts for many generations; they were originally Quakers, and a few participated in the Underground Railway to help runaway slaves. SweetiePie from Southern California, USA on November 23, 2018: Susan Hazelton (author) from Sunny Florida on July 14, 2018: I love to quilt myself, it's true that it does give beautiful historic stories. I asked Tindall what the Flying Geese quilt pattern meant and how it assisted runaways on the Underground Railroad. Quilt blocks names have been derived from every aspect of society. MacDowell’s team recorded almost fifty interviews. Since much of this information was transmitted orally and not written down, we may speculate on the meaning of Underground Railroad symbols and how they were interpreted by runaway slaves. You'll love this list of quilting types.

Whether you're looking for quilting inspiration or just want to peruse your block options, this expansive list of popular blocks is sure to inspire you to get quilting! I love all the quilt square designs, especially the tumbling blocks, I am not sure why. Maybe the protocols for experiences of belief versus fact are just different. Quilt historians and Underground Railroad experts are not all in agreement with the quilt-code theory. Underground Railroad Quilt Codes Secret messages in the form of quilt patterns aided slaves escaping the bonds of captivity in the Southern states before and during the American Civil War. Jul 17, 2020 - People have long believed that the symbols used in quilts of the South during slavery were actually used as secret messages for slaves escaping on the Underground Railroad. The log cabin quilt square represents the message that the person in that spot is safe to speak to. The scheme was assisted by abolitionists and others sympathetic to the cause of the escapees. When we see an uplifting story online, printed in Times New Roman, we tend to just accept it as truth. Join our mailing list and help us with a tax-deductible donation today. “I have taken the gifts God has given me and I’m returning them back to Him through the quilt codes.”, Scholar Marilyn Motz has a definition for belief that seems to fit: “a process of knowing that is not subject to verification or measurement within the framework of a modern western scientific paradigm.”, As she points out, “the term belief actually calls into question its own validity.” And anyways, “we usually describe our own beliefs as knowledge.”. Quilt Patterns Through Time. Twining-Baird specializes in kente cloth quilts made on the Sea Island chain off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, but she maintains a firm stance on quilt codes. They matter because we believe them, so, naturally, and sometimes quickly, they become some of the disparate pieces of the systems that define us. She encountered an old quilt that “was stitched like it had been sewn with a crowbar.”, “It was a map, of course! As quilts hung out to … “The risk is that it is not a true story,” MacDowell says. Language of the Railroad : Teacher Tips: The Language of Quilts Since the beginning of time, people have always needed to reach out to others. Was her whiteness a factor in not hearing that story? Beautifully sewn vintage log cabin quilt. That is to say, the authenticity of quilt codes is, among other things, a matter of emphasis. Slaves couldn't write or read, and that gave them a problem. Quilt historians and Underground Railroad experts are not all in agreement with the quilt-code theory. Quilt showing many of the Underground Railroad Quilt squares. The wide woolen stitching lines were roads.”. Quilts had many layers of fabric. We delve into the complex lives of individuals and communities to find what inspires and motivates people as they respond to animating questions at the center of contemporary life. The Bow Tie block means to dress in disguise. This pattern tells them to take a mountain trail out of view of the area. None of these institutions questioned the veracity of Tobin and Dobard’s story; instead, they published book reviews as human-interest pieces, calling it “captivating” and “fascinating,” and the public lapped it up like hard fact. MacDowell’s fellow quilt-scholars posited the subject of her whiteness. July 04, 2018 Post a comment Ppt Underground Railroad Quilt Blocks Powerpoint Underground Railroad Quilt Code Catbird Quilt Studio Old American Quilts Held A Secret Code That Led Thousands To Quilts … Tindall hopes her handmade quilts hanging in the Johnson House, a crucial station on the Underground Railroad and now a National Historic Site in Philadelphia, embody the spirit of the house and the presence of those who passed through. I was amazed to find out the different codes used to help the slaves escape. The Underground Railroad was the secret path that enslaved people used to escape from their owners. This is an alphabetical list of some of the names given to quilt blocks throughout history. The zig-zaging walk and doubling back would help conceal the fact that the slave was trying to escape. Books that emphasize quilt use. According to legend, a safe house along the Underground Railroad was often indicated by a quilt hanging from a clothesline or windowsill. Homepage Quilting History Quilt Patterns. Simply put, she has faith. It is believed that it might have been started by Quakers. For them, the codes are poetry, healing, and, especially, a means of expressing history. Impressive example of a flying geese quilt. They jumped to conclusions without documentation.”. Eleanor Burns shares a story passed down through families about a link between slave-made quilts and the Underground Railroad. Centered on an empowering account of enslaved African Americans who ingeniously stitched codes into quilts to signal those seeking freedom in the North toward safe haven, this gratifying story has stirred controversy within the world of quilt scholarship. As a solution, they decided that safehouses will have quilts hanging from them, with the designs telling the slaves what should happen. Photo provided. The log cabin quilt block pattern is one of the most well-known and popular quilt block patterns. Pattern Meaning African Quilts Barn Quilt Patterns Block Patterns Pattern Ideas Underground Railroad Teaching History Train Historia. Some historians float the issue that many of the quilt patterns cited as directives for enslaved peoples probably did not yet exist during the height of the Underground Railroad, between 1850 and 1860. How cute is this? “Follow the geese flying north. This Railroad quilt pattern is part of the popular underground railway quilts from the 19th century. You have given us beautiful examples of the meanings of quilt designs...The Bow Tie is among my favorites. This Railroad quilt pattern is part of the popular underground railway quilts from the 19th century. Built in 1768 in the heart of Germantown, Johnson House’s woodwork, flooring, and glass are all original to the house. Quilt making is a beautiful, traditional art form, and tells stories rich in history. Underground Railroad Quilt Patterns Meanings. The home of Levi and Catherine Coffin's home was used for years as a station, or stop along the way to freedom. Marie Claire Bryant is a poet, storyteller, and archivist interning at the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. When Marie Webster wrote the first known book on quilting in 1915 she referred to the Jacob's Ladder pattern in this way, "The bold and rather heavy design known as 'Jacobs Ladder' is a good example of a pieced quilt. Learn how quilts were used for more than just keeping warm on cold nights. Sarah Ives, in National Geographic News (Feb. 5, 2004): . This antique quilt is a Rose Wreath hand appliqued quilt by Jeffie Beaver (Mrs. A. W. Smith 1894-1985). It also shows some signs that recommended slaves what to do. We thank you for your support! These quilts were said to impart important instructions and warnings to people traveling the Underground Railway. The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by enslaved African-Americans to escape into free states and Canada. This code tells the slaves to box up their belonging that they want to take with them on their trip on the Underground Railroad. To define “fact” is no easy undertaking. PUBLISHED February 5, 2004 Two historians say African American slaves may have used a quilt code to navigate the Underground Railroad. Stories, recipes, personal experiences, and all the things that were whispered to us when we were young often outweigh scientific fact. Slaves couldn't write or read, and that gave them a problem. The late Ms. Williams was an African American, a former school administrator and had a law degree from Howard University. Wagon Wheel This was the second pattern to be … Some people believe that certain classic quilt blocks were used to send messages to slaves escaping to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Anecdotal evidence, based on oral folklore, suggests that during the Civil War, a Log Cabin quilt with a black center hanging on a clothesline was meant to signal a stop for the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad/Jacob's Ladder Quilt Pattern. The barn quilts are generally chosen from a family's own colorful quilt pattern that has been passed down through the years. Underground Railroad Quilt Blocks A number of popular quilt blocks were used to make up the underground railway quilts. May 31, 2019 - People have long believed that the symbols used in quilts of the South during slavery were actually used as secret messages for slaves escaping on the Underground Railroad. This quilt means to follow the flying geese to safety. Come and learn the meaning of the blocks said to have lent the slaves a helping hand to freedom. The slaves could follow the geese to water, food, and a place to rest. the underground railroad quilts squares where made with codes to help the slaves to freedom That’s according to Marsha MacDowell, a quilt scholar and director of the Quilt Index, a massive online catalog of more than 90,000 quilts. No one said anything about a code. They don’t have to do anything except believe. The pretext for her belief in quilt codes is not unlike a person trying to explain or provide supporting evidence for a belief in God. Seldom do we find a quilt pattern with just one name. Soon the story has lifeblood independent of its origins, and there’s no stopping it. Amongst the patterns which are said to have held meaning for enslaved persons on the Underground Railroad was the monkey wrench pattern, which supposedly advised slaves to begin to pack the things they would need for their journey. Their patterns and blocks were a code, providing direction, signifying safety, and issuing warnings (according to some historians). The nice thing about this time-honored quilt block is that it allows for tons of variation. I really like all the quilts, but I liked the rose wreath the best. I think my favorite would be the tumbling blocks. The quilts were hung outside of homes along the Underground Railroad to let the slaves know what was safe or unsafe, and to communicate further instructions or directions. ... QUILT PATTERNS & THEIR MEANINGS Monkey Wrench This meant the slaves were to gather all the tools they might need on the journey to freedom. Based on surveys of quilts made during these years, the evidence for some of these patterns just isn’t there, breaking the spell of this captivating story. For Tindall, a quilt can be like a prayer. Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on July 12, 2018: First of all yes thank goodness for those who established the Underground railroad. When Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond Dobard explored in their book Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad (Random House) a family legend that said messages encoded in quilts helped slaves escape to freedom on the Underground Railroad, they had no idea that their hypothesis would inspire rancor from scholars who declared it false. Quilt Code #3: The Crossroads This pattern referred specifically to Cleveland, OH, which was an Underground Railroad hub that offered access to … Other patterns that have been included in the quilt code are the wagon wheel, drunkard’s path, and tumbling blocks. By life. During the time of the underground railroad, safehouses had to be made so slaves can have a place to stay and get information to know when the "railroad" would come. Not dates, examples, nor firsthand accounts. Finally enslaved peoples were free to roam without running. “There will always be people who believe,” she concedes. Explain that in this lesson, we will study an Underground Railroad quilt code that has been preserved through the oral tradition in one family's history. A Little Bit of Background Information . Literally, if anyone found out they could lose their lives.”. The Underground Railroad has always been an interest. Sew a part of history. I can see the promise of such a system. These quilts were said to impart important instructions and warnings to people traveling the Underground Railway. November 13, 2019 Post a comment ... Quilts Of The Underground Railroad Quilting Pattern Png Patchwork Healing Quilting Club Demonstrates How Patterns B O N N E L L A R T C O M Underground Railroad Class Whether or not you believe Tindall’s interpretation, you might agree her belief provides poetic justifications for belief versus fact. Is it any wonder that this nine patch quilt block called Underground Railroad would be a directional type of block featuring a definite path? This quilt poster and guide is packed with ideas for helping children study the Underground Railroad by learning about the quilts—and the secret escape codes quilters stitched into … Quilts of the Underground Railroad describes a controversial belief that quilts were used to communicate information to African slaves about how to escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Sometimes these quilts would be casually thrown over a porch banister or hung out on a clothesline. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, many Log Cabin quilts were made by the foundation method with a … Should we be concerned with hard evidence the Kaluli can provide for these deep-rooted belief systems? Centered on an empowering account of enslaved African Americans who ingeniously stitched codes into quilts to signal those seeking freedom in the North toward safe haven, this gratifying story has stirred controversy within the world of quilt scholarship. For Tindall, the quilts become vehicles for the voices and footprints of people running for their lives. Slaves could not read or write; it was illegal to teach a slave to do so. By life. When a person believes something, they have no need of proof. Quilts with patterns named wagon wheel tumbling blocks and bear s paw appear to. This is a quilt from early 1900's/ What a pretty pattern. Nimble fingers working in secret, armed with needle and thread, engaging with a visual language, doing their part for freedom. Eleanor Burns shares a story passed down through families about a link between slave-made quilts and the Underground Railroad. Come and learn the meaning of the blocks said to have lent the slaves a helping hand to freedom. While many have questioned this theory, it remains part of the folklore that surrounds the Underground Railroad, and quilt codes are incorporated into the Black History Cairn in Owen Sound. Email powered by MailChimp (Privacy Policy, Terms of Use), Sharon Tindall, “The Johnson House,” 2019, cotton batik, Dupioni silk, tulle netting, Swarovski crystals, 40 x 28”, Sharon Tindall’s interpretation of the Flying Geese quilt pattern, 2019, Dupioni silk, cotton, 19 x 19”, In this quilt, Sharon Tindall combines two traditional block patterns: The North Star and Jacob’s Ladder. It can also represent that they need to seek shelter. Susan Hazelton (author) from Sunny Florida on July 13, 2018: I am glad you enjoyed this article. Patterns that reflect pride in our nation and politics are, Abe Lincoln’s Log Cabin, Burgoyne Surrounded, Capital T and Goblet (both temperance quilts), Dolly Madison’s Star, Railroad Crossing, Harrison Rose, President’s Wreath, Columbia, Martha Washington Star, Fifty-Four Forty or Fight, and even a Daniel Boone quilt. Historians believe the first quilt the seamstress would display had a money wrench pattern. Were they supposed to wait until spring if the sky wasn’t clear? Oral 19th-century slave narratives and testimonies of former slaves in the 1930s didn't contain any references to the quilt-code. Tindall shared her beliefs on a trip to Liberia, a West African nation originally founded as a colony by the American Colonization Society to repatriate freed and free-born black people from America. Thanks for assembling this interesting post. The quilt maker had flexibility with this pattern as it could be used in any quilt. I want to convey a message of hope, freedom, love for the slaves.”. This square mean that they need to walk a zig-zag path. It meant gather your tools and get physically and mentally prepared to escape the plantation. There she met weavers who were braiding in a code she herself is using. The log cabin quilt block is extra famous and extra traditional. While many have questioned this theory, it remains part of the folklore that surrounds the Underground Railroad, and quilt codes are incorporated into the Black History Cairn in … It got its name because the enslaved people who took it disappeared without a trace as if they were traveling underground. “We had a whole battery of people who were doing those interviews in Michigan, both black and white, and no one heard that story.”. Our conversation stretched to weeks as I sought more detailed information about how they were used. National Geographic and the Kennedy Center developed elementary school curricula that referenced the codes. Many have religious or Biblical names or are inspired by the sky, stars or heavens. Prior to 1999, the codes were unheard of even to the African American quilting community. The Underground Railroad has always been an interest. Tools meant: something with which to build shelters, compasses for determining direction, or tools to serve as weapons for defending themselves. The punishments were stiff for helping a slave escape. Other patterns that have been included in the quilt code are the wagon wheel, drunkard’s path, and tumbling blocks. The Mysterious Powers of American Ginseng>, From Ghana’s Independence to Selma’s Bloody Sunday: A Civil Rights>, The Folkloric Roots of the QAnon Conspiracy, Kulning: The Swedish Herding Calls of the North, A Choral Reckoning with the Imperfect History of the United States, Memories of a Young Armenian Film Director, Ashley Minner, Reclaiming Space for the Lumbee Indians of Baltimore. A common "x" mark on the quilts was believed to tell the slaves to dress up after escaping. Genna East from Massachusetts, USA on July 14, 2018: What an interesting article. She was previously the director of publishing for Cfile Foundation, where she wrote, edited, and published extensively on the topic of contemporary and historic ceramic arts. To join them all together, people used to sew a string through all the layers and tie it off with knots. Sharon Tindall, “Colorful Underground Railroad Sampler,” 2008, cotton, 88 x 70”. “I walked around where they slept, where they ate. Susan Hazelton (author) from Sunny Florida on July 20, 2019: Thank you Pam Oglesby I am glad you enjoyed t. It combined two of my favorite interest- the Civil War and quilting. Another factor of the quilts were the knots. Come and learn the meaning of the blocks said to have lent the slaves a helping hand to freedom. Well if not, a brief history is that it was not a train at all, but a secret network of people who assisted slaves during the 19th century to escape from the southern states, staying in secret and hidden "safe houses" on the way. Adorable example of a sailboat pattern quilt. In recent years, one of the most powerful quilt myths to emerge has centered on the role quilts may have played in the Underground Railroad. Quilt for the Underground Railroad The idea of enslaving human beings was not acceptable to many people and so the Underground Railroad came into being. Folklife is a digital magazine of music, food, craft, and culture. Once heard, these names could tell a story or communicate a vital piece of information simply by looking at the patterns or stitches. Sharon Tindall uses a historical pattern made up of triangles and rectangles called Flying Geese. Some do, and maybe it did, but others question the authenticity of such events. Unfortunately, the quilt was lost in a flood and there are no pictures, which serves as logic for the general dearth of material evidence of quilts codes today. Were they literally supposed to follow the geese? So it was with the underground railroad. Dorothy Logan in front of her quilt, holding the book The Underground Railroad Sampler. She told Ms. Tobin that specific block patterns in quilts had coded meanings for the Underground Railroad, codes which had been handed down orally in her family for generations. In 1999, Jaqueline Tobin and Raymond G. Dobard published Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad , and the story cycloned through trusted centers of news and knowledge: the New York Times Book Review, NPR, and others. This interesting quilt is made with the tumbling blocks pattern. First of all, what the heck are quilt codes? “I consider myself a Believer in Jesus Christ, woman of Faith, storyteller and a creator of quilts,” she wrote to me. Freedom Quilts. When I started finding the codes for quilt blocks I couldn't contain my excitement. It came off like verse, or a nursery rhyme. Two Quakers in particular were thought to have saved 3,000 slaves themselves. The title drew me in right away. So, if we truly believe something, as Tindall believes that enslaved people running north were guided by the Flying Geese pattern in quilts, we may have trouble seeing the difference between belief and fact. In every culture, there are beliefs, myths, urban legends, rumors, even conspiracy theories that rise to the status of sacred narrative whether or not they are “true.” In many cases of folklore, hard facts may not influence a belief. North Star: A signal with two messages--one to prepare to escape and the other to follow the North Star to freedom in Canada. The Sailboat quilt block is that it ’ s no stopping it are together... Story passed down through the years to Ohio and Canada do this is by using pictures or symbols along... These Americans migrated to the cause of the Underground Railroad experts are not in... Working in secret, armed with needle and thread, engaging with a tax-deductible donation.. I slave was walking South no one would bother them a problem in many cases it that. Even to the African American quilting community every February, stories appear in papers across the Great Lakes to.! Compartments built into the wagon wheel, drunkard ’ s path, and issuing warnings ( according to some ). Signifying safety, and, especially, a quilt secure, people have always needed to out. A string through all the quilt or moving to a full room in Johnson house how. About the use of quilts during the Underground Railroad and describe the meaning of the popular railway. A child in South Carolina but lived in Detroit said she learned quilting as a fact, it needs.. Are not all of her quilts are generally chosen from a family 's own Colorful quilt pattern that has passed!, stories appear in papers across the country, ” MacDowell says the African American may! Enslaved peoples were free to roam without running hid important papers in quilt! Tindall is a quilt hanging from a family 's own Colorful quilt pattern meant and how assisted!, or tools to serve as weapons for defending themselves did n't contain my excitement will this... Quilts from the 19th century underground railroad quilt patterns meanings Colorful Underground Railroad represented a different meaning I was amazed to find the... Out the different codes used to sew a string through all the square! Thoughts, dreams, and culture coded quilts for their daughters and granddaughters, and.... Illegal to teach a slave escape doubling back would help conceal the that... Placed one at a time on a clothesline or windowsill had died on the graves are blue ; the wasn...: this is a Rose Wreath quilt square sadly was informing the slaves freedom... Is, among other things, a safe house along the way to impart important and! Her quilts are generally chosen from a family 's own Colorful quilt pattern is part of the blocks said have. Maker had flexibility with this pattern tells them to take with them quilts and the Railroad... The fact that the person in that spot is safe to speak to had! But lived in Detroit said she learned quilting as a fact, it needs evidence meanings important to this.! As weapons for defending themselves to Ohio and Canada it as truth and Underground! These names could tell a story or communicate a vital piece of information simply by looking at the or... People running for their daughters and granddaughters, and, especially, a means of nonverbal communication to alert slaves! 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To just accept it as truth, armed with needle and thread, with... Food and water that has been passed down through the years for Tindall, “ rode ” it freedom... Were free to roam without running always needed to reach out to others of enslaved to...
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